The law of probability states that when a procedure can result in two equally likely outcomes, the probability of either outcome occurring is 1/2 or 50%. According to the law of probability, when there are four equally likely outcomes from a procedure, the probability that one of the outcomes will occur is 1/4 or 25%. You can see how this is calculated. For example, you know that in tossing two nickels, the probability of heads occurring on one nickel is 1/2. The possibility of heads occurring on the other nickel is also 1/2. The probability of heads occurring on both nickels in one toss is 1/2* 1/2*= 1/4. You can use the probability to predict the probability of given genetic traits appearing in the offspring of particular parents. Punnett squares can also be used to obtain these results. When gametes are formed, the pair of alleles that determine a particular trait separate and one allele goes to each gamete. When fertilization occurs, a male and female gamete fuse. The resulting zygote, which develops into the new individual, now contains two alleles for the trait. Which two of the parents’ alleles appear in the zygote is a result of chance. In this assignment, you will: Predict the probability of the occurrence of a single event. Predict the probability of two independent events occurring at the same time. Apply Mendel’s law to predict the occurrence of certain traits in the offspring of parents exhibiting particular traits. Apply the meaning of the term Standard Deviation to sampling techniques. Instructions Your task is to complete each of the three parts of the activity on probability. Once completed you will answer an analysis question that relates the events of the activity to the inheritance patterns observed in Mendelian genetics. Materials For this activity, you will need the following: Two nickels Masking tape Part I: Probability of the Occurrence of a Single Event Toss a nickel 20 times. Count how many times it lands heads up and how many times it lands tails up. Write the totals under the observed column for 20 tosses in Table 1 below. Using the law of probability, decide how many times out of 20 tosses you would expect heads to appear and how many times you would expect tails to appear. Write your answer in the expected column for 20 tosses in Table 1 below. Calculate deviation by subtracting the expected number from the observed number. Record these in the deviation column for 20 tosses in Table 1 below. Make all numbers positive. Repeat Step 1, but tossing the nickel 30 times. Count how many times heads and tails appear. Record the observed numbers in the observed column for 30 tosses in Table 1. Calculate the expected number of heads and tails and record them in the proper column in Table 1. Then calculate the deviates, and enter these in the proper column. Repeat Step 1, tossing the nickel 50 times. Keep track of the appearance of heads and tails. Record the observed numbers, expected numbers and deviations in the columns for 50 tosses in Table 1. Calculate the standard deviation for each of the four sections above; 20, 30, 50 and total tosses. To calculate the standard deviation, first, subtract the expected from the observed, as done in Table 1 and then square this value. Divide this value by the number of events. Take the square root of this result. This is your standard deviation. Enter your results in Table 2. Part II: Probability of Independent Events Occurring Simultaneously Toss two nickels 40 times simultaneously. Keep track of how many times heads-heads, heads-tails, tails-heads, and tails-tails occur. Count tails-heads and heads-tails together. Record the numbers for each combination in the observed column in Table 3 below. Calculate the percent of the total that each combination (heads-heads, heads-tails/tails-heads, or tails-tails) occurred and record it in the proper column. To find the percent, divide each observed number by 40 and multiply by 100. Using the law of probability, predict the expected outcomes of tossing two nickels. Record the expected numbers in the proper column in Table 3. Part III: Probability And Mendelian Genetics Place a small piece of masking tape on each side of two nickels. On one nickel write R on each side. On the other nickel write r on each side. Toss the nickels several times. What combination of alleles always appear? Would the offspring with these genes be round or wrinkled? Replace the old tape with new tape. On each nickel, write R on one side and r on the other side. Toss the coins simultaneously until all possible combinations of alleles have appeared. What combinations of genes appear? For each of the combinations, would the offspring be round or wrinkled? IMPORTANT Standard deviation tells how tightly a set of values is clustered around the average or expected outcomes of those same values. It’s a measure of dispersal, or variation, in a group of numbers. If a set of numbers is close to the average of those values or what is expected, then we may expect to see a low standard deviation. In contrast, if the set of numbers is spread across a greater range, it may present a high standard deviation. Higher standard deviation is often interpreted as higher volatility. In comparison, lower standard deviation would likely be an indicator of stability. Analysis Questions What trend could be observed between the observed and the expected outcomes. In Part I, how did the standard deviation change as you increased the number of times you tossed the coin? How might you explain this observation? In Part III, what combinations of alleles have appear? For each combinations, would the offspring be round or wrinkled? Use the results of this activity on the law of probability to explain the law of independent assortment. Assessment Details Your submission should include the following: The three completed data tables. Your written responses to the four analysis questions.
Why Choose Us
Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers
We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.
Professional and Experienced Academic Writers
We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.
Free Unlimited Revisions
If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.
Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee
All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.
Original & Confidential
We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.
Customer Support 24/7
Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
We are in business to offer you freedom and relaxation of mind as you work on other life engagements. We understand that writing is not for everyone. That’s why we are here to ensure that no assignments get late or goes undone.
Do you need your essay written from scratch to guarantee originality? We take essay writing orders from all disciplines regardless of the difficulty and urgency and ensure that your paper is well-polished before delivery. We guarantee quality essays with no grammar or punctuation mistakes. Also, be assured that your paper is plagiarism-free. We have fair prices and occasional discounts for our new and returning clients. Talk to our support team, who are available 24/7 to serve you.
Admission and Business Papers
An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.
Editing and Proofreading
Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.
If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.